Today, let’s learn about the types of cutting processing. Cutting processing can be roughly divided into two types, namely, “milling” of fixed workpiece and tool rotation, and “turning” of workpiece rotation. The following will introduce the representative process of milling “milling machine processing”, the representative process of turning “lathe processing”, and the machine tools used in these two processes.
Cutting is carried out by rotating a cutting tool named milling cutter head installed on the rotating shaft. The process will use tools to file the fixed workpiece intermittently for cutting, so it can not only process the surface of the workpiece into plane and curved surface, but also realize all kinds of machining such as drilling and grooving. According to the direction of the spindle of the installation tool, the milling cutter head can be divided into horizontal, vertical, and door type with the main body in the shape of a door. The machined objects can be processed into the target shape by using tools such as front milling cutter, end milling cutter and slot milling cutter.
(1) Universal milling
Universal milling is a milling machine operated manually by operators. While controlling the relative movement of the tool and the workpiece, the operator needs to judge and set the processing conditions such as tool position, tool feeding, speed, cutting in amount, etc. It can realize the fine processing that can only be achieved manually and obtain high-quality finished products.
(2) CNC Milling
CNC milling is realized by milling machine with the help of computer-controlled processing conditions. CNC stands for digital control. Tools such as punch cards have been used in the past. Nowadays, the CNC technology for CNC machining through the built-in computer of the equipment has become the mainstream. The technology including CNC milling is more and more called NC milling. Automatic operation not only helps to save labor, but also can be used for machining with more complex shapes by using the machining program control operation of 3D CAD / CAM software.
(3) Machining center
Machining center is developed from CNC milling machine. The biggest difference from CNC milling machine is that the machining center has the ability to automatically exchange machining tools. By installing tools for different purposes on the tool magazine, the machining tools on the spindle can be changed through the automatic tool change device in one clamping to realize a variety of machining functions. By using the machining center, the linear motion and rotary motion can be combined successively, and different kinds of cutting such as drilling and surface machining can be carried out continuously to process more complex shapes.
(4) CNC gear processing machine
The CNC gear processing machine with built-in computer can realize gear cutting and gear manufacturing of various shapes and uses in daily life, from clock to automobile.
Lathe machining is a kind of technology to realize machining by filing the cylindrical workpiece with a knife tool named turning tool fixed on the spindle while rotating the cylindrical workpiece. Using a lathe, the outer circumference of a cylindrical workpiece is processed into a circular or sharp shape (cone), drilling, reaming and boring, spiral cutting, cutting at the end point after grooving, etc.
(1) Universal lathe
The operator manually carries out the lathe processing of tool feeding operation and tool replacement. Fix the workpiece with a fixture called chuck, and then control it to rotate at high speed to realize machining. Using the bench lathe, small parts can be processed on the workbench.
(2) CNC lathe
With the help of computer-controlled CNC lathing, beginners can also complete processing with high quality. There are also models that can automatically replace a variety of tools, effectively promoting the efficiency of operation. In recent years, CNC automatic lathes that process through program control have been popularized.