At present, many CAD or CAM software provides automatic programming functions. These softwares generally prompt the process planning related questions such as cutter selections, machining path planning and cutting usage settings in the programming interface. Programmers only need to set the relevant parameters, the NC program can be automatically generated and transferred to the CNC machine for machining. Therefore, the cutter selection and cutting amount determination in CNC machining is completed under the human-computer interaction state, which is in sharp contrast with the ordinary machine tool processing. At the same time, the programmer must also master the basic principles of cutter selections and cutting amount determination. The programmer should fully consider the characteristics of CNC machining and can correctly select the cutting tool and the cutting amount when programming.
Types and characteristics of commonly used cutting tools for CNC machining
CNC machining cutting tools must adapt to the high speed, high efficiency and automation of CNC machine tools. Generally, they should include general cutting tools, universal connecting cutting holders and a small number of special holders. The holder is connected to the cutting tool and mounted on the power head of the machine. CNC cutting tools can be classified by many ways.
CNC cutting cutting tools can be divided into high speed steel cutting tools, hard alloy cutting tools, diamond cutting tools, cubic boron nitride cutting tools and ceramic cutting tools based on the tools’ materials.
In recent years, clamping turning cutting tools have been widely used in order to meet the requirements of CNC machine tools such as being durable, stable, easy to adjust and replaceable, reaching 30% to 40% of the entire CNC tools in quantity and 80% to 90% of the total metal removal.
Compared with the cutting tools used for ordinary machine, CNC cutting tools should have features of having good rigidity (especially rough machining cutting tools), high precision, anti-vibration and small thermal deformation, good interchangeability, quick replacement of the cutting tool, long service life and being stable and reliable cutting performance, easily adjust and change tool to save time and standardized for programming and tool management .
CNC machining cutter selections
The cutter selection is carried out in the human-computer interaction state of CNC programming. The cutter and cutter holder should be selected correctly according to the machining capacity of the machine tool, the performance of the workpiece material, the machining process, the cutting amount and other relevant factors. The general principle of the cutter selection is that the cutter should be easily installed and adjusted and have good rigidity, durability and high precision. Under the premise of meeting the processing requirements, try to choose a shorter tool holder to improve the rigidity of the tool processing.