Wire EDM Machining: Working Principle & Characteristics Of WEDM


Wire EDM technology is a technology in special machining in industrial production. This technology is different from traditional machining technology in that it needs mechanical energy to cut. It mainly uses the heat energy generated by the discharge of electric spark in electric energy to realize the cutting and separation of materials. Therefore, WEDM technology is not limited by materials, and can process any conductive metal materials at will. Therefore, wire EDM technology plays a very important role in China’s industrial production and machining.


Working Principle Of Wire EDM Machining

The working principle of wire EDM machining is a process of separating metal materials by melting after the heat generated by electric spark discharge reaches the melting point of metal materials. It was invented by the former Soviet Union in the last century, but China applied this technology to industrial production for the first time.

Wire EDM machining is divided into slow WEDM, fast WEDM and medium WEDM according to different technology. The difficulty of the processed workpiece material processed in on-line cutting has nothing to do with the metal hardness of the processed material, because there is no significant physical mechanical cutting force in the cutting process. This technology can be used to process all conductive materials such as alloys with high hardness. However, the minimum corner radius of the workpiece to be machined is limited. That is, the minimum radius in WEDM processing is the radius of electrode wire plus the gap between the processing plate and the console. In the actual processing of wire EDM, the shape is formed by the movement of the workbench according to the set control program. This can only process the contour figure of the workpiece, and the remaining surplus materials can still be used.

Wire EDM machining is a kind of technological method of spark discharge cutting and forming the machined workpiece for the metal electrode wire that is damaged in the machining area. This kind of mobile electrode wire avoids the influence of electrode loss on machining accuracy. At present, wire EDM technology can only be used in through holes and machining edges, and can punch and cut in all kinds of complex parts.

In the era of the development of online cutting technology, with the development of society and the progress of science and technology, various fields of wire EDM have also been widely promoted, and all these products used in wire EDM, so wire cutting processing is the most important link in the socialized large-scale production of related industries. Now, with the wire EDM machining, it has made great progress in China.

Main Characteristics & Features Of WEDM Machining

1. There is no obvious mechanical cutting trace in WEDM machining. No matter how hard and rigid the processed materials are, they can be processed perfectly, but. non-metallic conductive materials cannot be processed.

2. The cutting seam produced by wire EDM is narrow and the amount of metal erosion is relatively small, which is conducive to the reuse of processing materials.

3. It can process small hole materials and machining parts with complex shapes, but it can not process blind holes.

4. In the process of WEDM, there may be deformation or cracks on the surface of the workpiece, so heat treatment and rough machining should be carried out properly before WEDM, so as to improve the accuracy of WEDM by consuming the performance of processing materials and blank shape defects.

5. Wire EDM technology has low loss of electrode wire and high machining precision.

6. When machining too thick materials by wire cutting, it will make it difficult for the working fluid to enter and fill the gap of discharge, which will affect the machining accuracy or cause the surface roughness of machining materials.

7. WEDM can be processed by CNC programming technology, and its processing parameters can be precisely adjusted to realize full-automatic processing.