What is CNC Laser Cutter – Components of A Laser Cutting Machine


CNC laser cutters come with a unique design and work in a different way than other CNC machines. Here let’s learn about the basics of a laser cutter and the components of a laser cutting machine.

What is CNC Laser Cutter

The CNC laser cutter is a type of Computer Numerical Control machine, it generates a high-energy beam to irradiate the surface of the material, which melts the metal material rapidly and makes the material melt linearly by moving the beam to achieve the purpose of cutting and get the desired shape.  


Advantages of Laser Cutting:

– It is ideal for the cutting process of sheet metal, such as engraving. According to the laser power, laser cutting is very advantageous for sheet metal cutting within 50mm.

– When complex shapes need to be cut, it is only necessary to draw the corresponding drawings in advance and import them into the cutting system for cutting.

– The precision error of laser cutting is low, usually within ± 0.1mm. The non-contact cutting also has small material deformation.

– The cost of materials is low. Only the cutting nozzle and shielding gas are needed, without replacing expensive saws.

– The overall environmental protection, with its own dust removal and smoke exhaust device when cutting, almost no pollution during the cutting process.

Components and Uses of A Laser Cutting Machine

1. Table: controls the functioning of the entire cutting device and is the source of all operation commands.

2. Laser cutting head: composed of a servo motor, a screw rod or gear, and other transmission components, the laser cutting head is used to drive the cutting head along the Z axis in accordance with the program. It consists mostly of the cavity, the focusing lens base, the focusing mirror, the capacitive sensor, and the auxiliary gas nozzle.

3. Stabilized power supply: connects a laser, CNC machine tool, and power supply system to a stabilized voltage power source. It is mostly used to prevent interference from the external power grid and to stabilize the voltage.

4. Laser CNC system: the laser controls the machine tool to realize the movement of the X, Y, and Z axes, and also controls the output power of the laser.

5. Laser generator and external light path: a laser light source-generating equipment. The external optical path consists of a refracting mirror that directs the laser in the desired direction. To prevent beam path failure, all mirrors must be shielded by protective coverings, and clean, positive-pressure protective gas must be injected to shield the lenses from contamination.

6. Air compressor and gas storage tank: provide and store compressed air.

7. Slag extractor: it is used to remove leftover materials and wastes generated during processing.

8. Gas cylinder: including the working medium gas cylinder and auxiliary gas cylinder of the laser cutting machine, which are used to supplement the industrial gas of the laser vibration and supply the auxiliary gas for the cutting head.

9. Machine host: the machine part of the laser cutting machine, the mechanical part that realizes the movement of X, Y, and Z axes, including the cutting platform. It is used to place the workpiece to be cut and can move correctly and accurately according to the control program, usually driven by a servo motor.

10. Water chiller: used to cool the laser generator. A laser is a device that converts electric energy into light energy. For example, the conversion rate of a CO2 gas laser is generally 20%, and the remaining energy is converted into heat. The cooling water takes away the excess heat to maintain the normal operation of the laser generator. The water chiller unit also cools the reflector and focusing mirror of the external light path of the machine tool to ensure stable beam transmission quality and effectively prevent the lens from deformation or cracking due to excessive temperature.

11. Exhaust dust remover: extract the smoke and dust generated during processing and filter them to make the exhaust gas emission meet the environmental protection standards.

12. Air cooling dryer and filter: provides clean, dry air to the laser generator and beam path in order to maintain the path and reflector’s functionality.