The drilling machine mainly uses the drill bit to create holes in the workpiece. There are various drilling machines for different purposes. Here we’ll get into some basics of vertical drilling machines, covering the definition, principle, features, and comparison with the radial drill.
As one of the drilling machines, the vertical drilling machine is also a relatively common metal cutting machine tool. It is suitable for batch production and has a wide range of applications and high accuracy. A vertical drilling machine or vertical drill comes with main shaft that is vertically arranged and its center position is fixed. It is often used for machining holes of medium and small workpieces in machinery manufacturing and repair factories. The vertical CNC drilling machine can feed automatically, and its power and mechanism strength allows the use of higher cutting consumption. Therefore, this kind of drilling machine can obtain higher labor productivity and greater machining accuracy. The spindle speed and feed rate of the vertical drilling machine have a large range of variations, which can be used for machining different materials of tools on different workpieces. A set of multi-spindle transmission heads is installed on the vertical drilling machine, which can drill dozens of holes at the same time. It can be used as a drilling machine tool for mass production. The vertical drilling machine is mainly composed of the main shaft, main shaft gearbox, feed box, column, workbench, and base.
The power of the motor is transmitted to the main shaft gearbox through the belt, and then to the main shaft after the speed change of the main shaft speed reed, so that the main shaft drives the drill bit to rotate at the required speed, thus realizing the movement of the tool installed on the main shaft. When cutting, the speed of small-hole drilling is generally higher, and vice versa. The gearbox of the vertical drill is similar to the variable speed gearbox of the lathe. The power of the motor is also transmitted to the feed box so that the spindle can automatically make an axial feed motion. The manual axial feed can also be realized by using the handle. The feed box and worktable can move up and down along the column guide rail to adapt to the processing of workpieces of various sizes.
1. The spindle speed of the vertical drilling machine has a wide range, and the rotation speed is changed by the cooperation of the two handles on the left side of the spindle box and the speed change switch.
2. The rotation speed of the vertical drilling machine is set reasonably, and it has good cutting performance when drilling large hole diameters.
3. The variable speed switch of the vertical drilling machine is equipped with reverse rotation at high and low speeds so that the thread can be tapped at any speed.
4. Vertical drilling machine bracket and worktable clamping handle are set below, and other operating handles are set above the headstock.
5. The spindle part of the vertical drilling machine is equipped with a return spring and a tool unloading device. The former can be adjusted according to the operator’s habits, and the latter is convenient for tool removal.
6. The lifting mechanism of the spindle box and bracket of the vertical drilling machine can be used for both up and down lifting and 360 ° rotation movement. The lifting mechanism is set as a general component. The lifting is realized by the worm gear pair through gear and rack, achieving the labor-saving and self-locking safety effect.
7. The motor of the vertical drilling machine is installed in the main shaft box. The outer diameter of the motor stator is added with a bushing for positioning, which is convenient for maintenance and disassembly. The power is transmitted to the gearbox through the spline sleeve connection. The main castings are subject to artificial aging treatment. The main steel parts, such as the main shaft, are subject to necessary heat treatment to maintain good stability and wear resistance.
Compared with the radial drilling machine, the vertical drilling machine can rotate and lift the rocker arm of the radial drilling machine around the column. Generally, the spindle box can move horizontally on the rocker’s arm. It is suitable for machining large parts and holes with different orientations. The spindle box and workbench of the vertical drilling machine are arranged on the column, and the spindle is vertically arranged. Drilling is more stable than radial drilling machines, with a large drilling force, and can also be tapped. The only disadvantage is that the processing of large and porous workpieces is not as convenient as the radial drilling machine. When processing large and porous workpieces, the radial drill only needs to move the radial arm, while the vertical drill needs to move the workpieces, which is not as convenient as the radial drill.